What Is Brain Fog? Understanding Causes, Symptoms, And Effective Treatments


Brain Fog can manifest in several forms - lack of mental clarity, reduction in cognitive functioning, problems with memory, etc. In short, it can make you confused, disoriented, and unable to think clearly. But what causes brain fog and how to treat it? Read along to find all the answers related to brain fog, its causes, diagnostic process, and treatment options.

What Is Brain Fog?

Brain Fog isn't a definite term, but an assortment of symptoms that contribute to cognitive dysfunction. The phenomenon itself is not a disease and doctors don't diagnose someone suffering from brain fog. Instead, the associated symptoms are the main target which usually occurs as an overall loss of mental clarity.

causes of Brian Fog

Brain Fog is often accompanied by some common symptoms

  • Lack of Concentration
  • Lack of Motivation
  • Mental Exhaustion
  • Forgetfulness
  • Difficulty Recalling Words

Several medical conditions, lifestyle, eating habits, etc. can be a factor behind brain fog. Therefore, the treatment option almost always targets the underlying cause to clear brain fog and bring cognitive function back to normal.

What are the causes of Brian Fog?

Here are the 5 possible causes of Brian Fog;

1. Lack of Sleep 

Lack of sleep is often the most common reason for the brain fog. Sleep-deprived hectic lifestyles severely impair cognitive functions. On top of that, fatigue associated with sleep deprivation further reduces mental function and leads to difficulties concentrating and memory issues. These factors combine to impair the overall mental capacity and result in brain fog.

2. Mental Factors

A University of Washington study found that Mental factors such as stress can be a culprit for brain fog. Chronic stress can trigger the release of stress hormones like cortisol which can interfere with neurotransmitters and impair cognitive functioning. Likewise, depression and anxiety also leech away precious cognitive resources. They are spent on managing emotional state rather than cognitive tasks resulting in brain fog.

3. Nutritional deficiencies

Nutritional deficiencies can also contribute to brain fog. Essential nutrients are crucial for neurotransmitter activities and overall brain functions. Lack of such nutrients like omega-3 fatty acids that support brain structure and B Vitamin that are crucial for energy metabolism can lead to decreased cognitive functioning and brain fog.

4. Hormonal Imbalance 

Hormones, particularly sex and thyroid hormones significantly impact brain functions. Fluctuations in these hormones severely impact the overall functioning of the brain and contribute to mood changes. In turn, it leads to brain fog.

5. Medical Conditions

Some medical conditions can also cause brain fog. Some illnesses cause inflammation of the brain, like autoimmune diseases that can result in brain fog. Likewise, hormonal changes due to menopause can also lead to impaired cognitive functioning.

Other medical conditions that can trigger brain fog are;

Brain Fog As a Complication of Covid 19

After the recent coronavirus pandemic, doctors noticed a sudden increase in cases of people suffering from brain fog. A study published in PubMed Central, National Library of Medicine reveals that those who suffer from Covid 19 are prone to developing long-term neurological ailments including brain fog.

How to Treat Brain Fog

How is Brain fog diagnosed?

Since the symptoms of brain fog can manifest in other illnesses too, therefore making an exact diagnosis based on symptoms alone isn't possible. Consequently, diagnosis is carried out in several steps often narrowing down the possible causes through various examinations and tests. In case the exact diagnosis couldn't be made by a general practitioner, a neurological specialist can be called in to have a look.

Here's the diagnostic process for brain fog:

  • A physician will assess patients' medical history, and inquire about the symptoms. It can offer valuable details about any underlying condition that may be causing brain fog.
  • Laboratory testing and imaging can also help identify the potential cause of brain fog. Blood tests can reveal nutritional deficiencies, inflammation, or hormonal imbalance. Similarly, MRI and CT can also be utilized to identify any structural issues that may be contributing to impart cognitive function.

How to Treat Brain Fog?

Since, Brian fog is an umbrella term, treating the underlying cause is the primary course to eliminate the conditions. Here are the treatment options available for brain fog;

1. Lifestyle Adjustments 

Following a healthy sleep schedule and creating a conducive environment for sleep can help prevent sleep-related brain fog.

2. Stress Management Technique 

Stress reduction methods like Yoga, Meditation, and breathing exercises can also help elevate brain functioning and prevent brain fog.

3. Dietary Modifications

Nutrition has a direct correlation with brain function. A balanced diet rich in omega-3, vitamins, and antioxidants will boost cognitive function and eliminate brain fog.

4. Medications and Supplements

If an underlying medical condition is behind the brain fog, your doctor will prescribe necessary medications to rectify the issue. For example, thyroid supplements can balance thyroid hormones in the body and provide relief from thyroid-associated brain fog.

5. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)

Therapy sessions can be extremely beneficial for individuals suffering from chronic depression, anxiety, or stress. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy can significantly contribute to improving mental health and clarity.

Pay Attention to These Nutritions if You Want to Avoid Brain Fog

  1. Vitamin B12 - B12 deficiency can significantly impair brain function. Therefore, include food items rich in B13 Vitamins like yeast fortified, beef liver, clam, etc.
  2. Omega-3 - Brian needs good fatty acids for optimum functioning. You can supplement your diet with Omega-3 capsules to prevent its deficiency.
  3. Vitamin D - Vitamin D deficiency can affect mood and lead to brain fog. Supplementing food with vitamin D, calcium, etc. can help overcome its deficiency.
  4. Magnesium - Magnesium deficiency is quite common and results in cognitive decline, fatigue, and concentration issues. Eating magnesium-rich food like whole wheat, spinach, black beans, avocado, etc. will help tackle its deficiency.


Brain Fog can impair any individual. While several factors contribute to It, an unhealthy lifestyle is the primary culprit. Simple adjustments in daily habits, a good diet, and adequate sleep can resolve brain fog in most cases. However, if you notice a severe decline in cognitive function, consulting a doctor is the best course. Get in touch immediately and ensure good mental health.


  • Capuron L., Welberg L., Heim C., Wagner D., Solomon L., Papanicolaou D. A., et al. (2006). Cognitive dysfunction relates to subjective report of mental fatigue in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Neuropsychopharmacology 31, 1777–1784 10.1038/sj.npp.1301005 [CrossRef]
  • Braver T. S., Cohen J. D., Nystrom L. E., Jonides J., Smith E. E., Noll D. C. (1997). A parametric study of prefrontal cortex involvement in human working memory. Neuroimage 5, 49–62 10.1006/nimg.1996.0247 [PubMed]

Our recommendations are rooted in genuine belief in the benefits of the products bring to users. When you purchase through our links, we may earn a commission, supporting our testing and development without adding any cost for you. Learn more.

Dr. David G Kiely is a distinguished Medical Reviewer and former General Medicine Consultant with a wealth of experience in the field. Dr. Kiely's notable career as a General Medicine Consultant highlights his significant contributions to the medical field.

Learn More

Leave a Comment