What Are The Most Common Eye Diseases? Treating Eye Diseases 

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The Human Eye is a complex and delicate organ and a valuable asset for life. Eyes play a fundamental role in our perception of the world, and because of them, we can experience the world around us. However, amidst this beauty of nature, certain eye diseases can cause great inconvenience, either altering our vision or causing complete vision loss.

From age-related eye diseases to genetic disorders and macular degeneration, there are a range of challenges human eyes go through. Here are some of the most common eye diseases, their causes and symptoms. Observe the symptoms to evaluate your eye health.

6 Most Common Eye Conditions And Diseases

1. Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)

Age-Relayed Macular Degeneration (AMD) is a progressive eye disease that primarily affects older adults. AMD impacts the central part of the retina, ‘Macula’, that regulates sharp, central vision. It effects older adults, ideally people over 50 years and can be of two types: Dry and Wet. 

Dry AMD covers 80% of the total AMD cases, and the loss of vision in this condition is often a little slow. Wet AMD, which is less common, can have severe impacts and faster vision loss.

Causes Of AMDSymptoms Of AMDTreatment Of AMD
SmokingDifficulty Recognizing FacesFor Dry AMD
Nutritional Supplements And Lifestyle Changes
High Blood PressureBlurred Or Dismissed VisionFor Vet AMD
Anti-VEGF Injections
Photodynamic Therapy
Laser Surgery
AgeingDecreased Color Perception
Family History Of AMDLight Sensitivity
Distorted Vision Or Dry/ Empty Spaces
Age-Related Macular Degeneration

2. Amblyopia

Amblyopia or ‘Lazy Eye’ is basically a vision development disorder that occurs amongst infants or during early childhood. Amblyopia commonly occurs when the nerve pathway connecting the eye and brain isn’t stimulated. It generally reduces one's vision and is less common in both eyes. In simpler words, Amblyopia is a condition where the brain favours one eye over the other.

Causes Of AmblyopiaSymptoms Of AmblyopiaTreatment Of Amblyopia
Cataract Or Similar Eye ConditionsSquinting Or Repeated Eye CloserCorrective Lenses
Refractive ErrorsPoor Depth PerceptionEye Patching (To Encourage The Use Of Weaker Eyes)
Crossed Eyes/ Misaligned Eyes Or StrabismusDifference Of Vision In Both The EyesVision Therapy
Poor Peripheral VisionAtropine Eye Drop
Amblyopia

3. Diabetic Retinopathy

Caused by high blood sugar (Diabetes), Diabetic Retinopathy affects the retina, leading to abnormal blood vessel growth in the eyes. It can cause blindness amongst impacted diabetic individuals and even permanent vision loss. Retinopathy occurs in different stages, from Mild to Moderate, Severe, and Proliferative, where finally, the blood vessels a vitreous gel along the retina.

Causes Of Diabetic Retinopathy
Symptoms Of Diabetic Retinopathy
Treatment Of Diabetic Retinopathy
High Blood Sugar Levels For Prolonged PeriodsConstant Blurry Vision Or Blurry Vision Changing To Clear VisionEffective Management Of Diabetes
High Blood Pressure, Aka HypertensionPoor Night VisionEffective Management Of Hypertension
The Duration Of DiabetesLoss Of VisionAnti-VEGF Injections
Seeing An Increased Number Of FloatersLaser Therapy
Difficulty In Seeing ColorsVitrectomy
Steroid Injections
Diabetic Retinopathy

4. Glaucoma

Glaucoma is a group of common eye conditions that is common during the senior years of life, though it can even affect youngsters. This eye disease damages the optic nerves and is often associated with Elevated Intraocular Pressure (IOP) along with low or normal IOP. Glaucoma is one of the most common causes of (irreversible) blindness worldwide.


Causes Of Glaucoma

Symptoms Of Glaucoma

Treatment Of Glaucoma
Intraocular Eye PressureGradual Loss Of Peripheral VisionEye Drop (Prescription-based)
Thin CorneaRainbow Color Halos Upon Seeing Any Artificial LightOral Medication
Family History Of GlaucomaBlurred Vision And Blind SpotsLaser Therapy
Diabetes Or Other Medical ConditionsSurgical Interventions Like Trabeculectomy Or MIGS
African, Latin American, Hispanic Or Asian DescentCombination Therapy
Drainage Implants
Glaucoma

5. Refractive Errors

Refractive Error is one of the prevalent eye diseases, common during all stages of life. In most cases, refractive error results in blurred or distorted vision. The condition is caused by the inability of the eyes to focus light on the retina properly. Some common refractive errors include Myopia (Nearsightedness), Hyperopia (Farsightedness), Astigmatism, and Presbyopia.


Causes Of Refractive Errors

Symptoms of Refractive Errors
Treatment of Refractive Errors
Too Short Or Too Long EyeballsEye Strain Or Eye PainPrescription Eyeglasses
Too Curved Cornea Or Too Little CurvatureHeadache Contact Lenses
AgeingBlurred Or Distorted VisionOrthokeratology
GeneticsDouble VisionRefractive Surgery
Environmental Factors, Including Prolonged Usage Of Digital DevicesSquintingMultifocal Contact Lenses Or Eye Glases
Eye InjuryRefractive Lens Exchange
Diabetes
Certain Medications
Refractive Errors

6. Strabismus

Strabismus, also known as ‘Crossed Eye’ or ‘Turned Eye’, is a common disorder that develops during childhood. It isn’t mainly an eye disease but a vision condition in which both eyes point towards different directions, affecting the overall binocular vision. There are different types of Strabismus, including Esotropia, Exotropia, Hypertropia, and Hypotropia.


Causes Of Strabismus
Symptoms Of Strabismus
Treatment Of Strabismus
Muscle Imbalance (Responsible For Eye Movement And Alignment)Both Eyes Don’t Move TogetherPrescription Eyeglasses
Nerve IssuesHeadache And Eye StrainEye Patching
Genetic (Most Common Reason)Squinting Or Closing One EyeVision Therapy
Refractive ErrorsPoor Depth PerceptionBotox Injections
Any Illness During ChildhoodDouble VisionOrthoptic Exercises
Eye Injury Or Eye DiseaseSurgery
Strabismus

Also Read:- What Causes Dark Circles Under Your Eyes? How To Get Rid Of Dark Circles Permanently?

End Result

Overall, these were some of the common eye diseases that affect individuals of different age groups globally. From conditions like cataracts and glaucoma to diabetic retinopathy and macular degeneration, these eye diseases can impact your experience of looking towards the world. However, by understanding the causes and evaluating the symptoms early, it is possible to avail possible treatments towards a proactive step of preserving delicate eye health and vision.

Upon experiencing any of the above symptoms, make sure you consult an eye care professional at the earliest.

References:

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Dr. David G Kiely is a distinguished Medical Reviewer and former General Medicine Consultant with a wealth of experience in the field. Dr. Kiely's notable career as a General Medicine Consultant highlights his significant contributions to the medical field.

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