Is ketamine An Opioid? Know The facts!

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With rising concerns around opioid addictiveness and misuse, the question “Is ketamine an opioid?” has taken on greater relevance.

As physicians search for alternatives to traditional opioid pain medications like morphine or oxycodone that carry high risks, some have turned to ketamine, an FDA-approved anesthetic used for anesthesia induction, sedation, and pain management.

However, questions persist about whether ketamine should be categorized like other habit-forming opioids or considered uniquely separate based on its pharmacological differences.

Defining ketamine as an opioid hinges first on understanding what defines the opioid class and then contrasting it with how this drug acts in the nervous system.

Exploring related issues around usage, addictiveness potential, and side effects builds a foundation to make appropriate clinical and policy decisions regarding ketamine’s positioning for pain relief applications amidst an addiction crisis.

What Is Opioids?

Opioid Medications

The term opioid refers to any natural, synthetic, or semi-synthetic substance that binds to opioid receptors in the body to produce effects like:

  • Pain relief
  • Euphoria or relaxation
  • Slowed breathing
  • Constipation
  • Sedation

Common examples include licit-prescribed medications like morphine, oxycodone, and hydrocodone, as well as illegal drugs such as heroin, and fentanyl. These substances derive from or mimic compounds in the opium poppy plant, like opium latex, which contains morphine and codeine.

They exert effects by activating one or more of the body’s opioid receptors – including those in the brain’s reward pathways, and brain stem, to control autonomic functions like respiration.

How Is Ketamine Different From Opioids?

Is ketamine an opioid? Ketamine is not an opioid because it has a distinct mechanism of action as an NDMA receptor antagonist, unlike classical opioid agonists. When binding glutamate, NMDA receptors regulate pain signaling and perception, dissociation, and sedation.

By blocking these sites, ketamine interrupts pain transmission through pathways completely separate from the opioid receptor system.

However, at higher doses, ketamine can induce effects like euphoria, addiction potential, and respiratory depression that parallel problematic opioid properties.

Recreationally, ketamine triggers intensely pleasurable states by activating brain reward regions, leading to abuse and withdrawal. Medically, it can suppress breathing similarly to opioids, increasing overdose risk when combined with other sedatives.

So while not an opioid pharmacologically, ketamine mirrors concerns regarding misuse liability and breathing suppression that guide legal regulation of controlled opioid substances

Approved Medical Uses

What is ketamine used for? In medical contexts today, ketamine’s primary applications include:

  • Anesthesia Induction

It is valued in operating rooms and emergency departments for its ability to rapidly induce loss of sensation and consciousness for procedures. Effects manifest in under one minute but wear off quickly.

  • Pain Management

For patients facing inadequate relief from opioids or needing alternatives, sub-anesthetic ketamine dosing via injection or infusion can provide substantial pain relief for up to 3 months.

  • Treatment-Resistant Depression

At low doses administered intravenously, ketamine has shown remarkable benefits against severe depression and acute suicidal thinking - working more rapidly than antidepressants. Effects may begin within 2 hours, but multiple infusions are needed to sustain the benefits.

The efficacy and favorable safety profile of these uses have increased medical interest in ketamine therapy for pain, mental health, and addiction treatment. However, wavering regulatory perspectives continue to weigh the risks of misuse against potential benefits for patients in need.

Is Ketamine Addictive?

Like opioids, repeated recreational misuse of high-dose ketamine long-term carries high risks of psychological and physical dependence. Dependence manifests in:

  • Growing tolerance over months to years of frequent use, requiring more dosage to achieve previous effects
  • Physical withdrawal symptoms like shakes, rapid heart rate, sweating when use stops
  • Powerful psychological cravings that drive persistent drug use despite negative consequences

While medical administration follows strict protocols to minimize misuse, historically, much addiction concern centers on recreational abuse trends, including:

  • Recreational Use: For its dissociative, hallucinogenic properties, ketamine became popular as a club drug in the 1990s and 2000s, with dedicated user subcultures and street names like “Special K.” Binges on high doses for days or weeks often escalate tolerance and addiction.
  • Intentional Poisoning: Due to causing memory impairment, ketamine has also been used in drug-facilitated sexual assault and robbery - typically combined with other substances to incapacitate victims.

These remain ongoing issues today, though improved awareness has helped curb causal misuse. Still, the addiction potential guided DEA's classification as a Schedule III controlled substance - limiting clinical research.

Side Effects And Risks Of Ketamine

While beneficial therapeutically, ketamine still carries dose-dependent side effects and adverse reaction risks requiring monitoring, including:

  • Cardiovascular: High blood pressure, irregular heart rate
  • Psychological: Anxiety, confusion, fear, euphoria
  • Neurological: Numbness, lack of coordination, dizziness
  • Respiratory: Breathing suppression
  • Gastrointestinal: Nausea, vomiting, constipation
  • Ocular: Double vision, nystagmus
  • Urological: Urinary retention, cystitis

Ketamine intoxication also impairs judgment, raising the likelihood of accidents. Combined with other central nervous system depressants like alcohol and benzodiazepines, increases risks of unconsciousness, coma, and death due to severe respiratory depression. With long-term heavy recreational use, permanent damage to bladder function may occur.

Conclusion

Distinguishing whether ketamine classifies as an opioid hinges first upon a precise definition of “opioid.” While ketamine differs in its pharmacological mechanism - blocking NDMA, not mu-opioid receptors to achieve analgesic effects - it mirrors opioids on several fronts.

These include comparable pain-killing efficacy, risks of triggering euphoria and subsequent drug craving, misuse, and dependence as well as dose-dependent respiratory depression (though less severe than prototypical opioids).

Ultimately if physicians responsibly prescribe and closely monitor patients while policymakers craft nuanced rules tailored to context, the question “Is ketamine an opioid?” becomes secondary to ensuring access for those who could benefit, prohibiting that which causes harm.

References

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Dr. David G Kiely is a distinguished Medical Reviewer and former General Medicine Consultant with a wealth of experience in the field. Dr. Kiely's notable career as a General Medicine Consultant highlights his significant contributions to the medical field.

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