Blood In Urine - Most Common Causes Of Blood In Urine

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Human urine isn't supposed to include blood, but when this happens, it's known as hematuria. Experiencing this doesn't always mean you're ill; however, you shouldn't disregard it. Most American adults are victims of this at a rate of 2% to 30%.

You can say you have gross hematuria if the blood in your urine is visible to your eyes; however, if it's the opposite, it's known as microscopic hematuria. Nevertheless, it would help if you understood why you're experiencing such.

Causes Of Blood In Urine

Many factors can make you have hematuria, and some of them include:

  • Infection: There are cases of people with urinary tract, bladder, or kidney infections, resulting in hematuria. The urethra is the first infected, followed by the bladder and kidney. A healthcare provider might examine patients via gross or microscopic hematuria when they complain of pain during urination.
  • Stones in the kidney or bladder: When your bladder or kidney has stones that can disrupt the easy flow of urine, you will start feeling pain and urinating blood. 
Causes Of Blood In Urine
  • Enlarged prostate: When the prostate, a gland closer to the bladder and urethra, gets enlarged, it can result in hematuria and a urinary tract infection (UTI). Sadly, men above 50 years are victims of this, and their bladder cannot fully perform its function since the enlarged prostate is exerting pressure on it, making these men unable to urinate properly.
  • Kidney disease: This isn't as common as others, but it can still result in hematuria. Diabetes is one of the factors that can cause kidney disease. Studies reveal that a kidney disorder known as post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis can affect kids ages six and ten and give them hematuria. Since the advent of antibiotics, strep infestations cannot thrive again within a fortnight as they used to. 
  • Cancer: Cancer comes in many forms, but the one that can cause hematuria must be related to your bladder, kidney, or prostate. Therefore, there must be an abnormal growth of cells in these organs, and you discover its symptoms late.

Symptoms Of Blood In Urine

When your urine starts appearing pink, red, or resembles cola-cola, it's a sign of hematuria. Red blood cells are the main reason for it to become red. Most times, you don't feel any pain while bleeding. Yet, there are cases where individuals experience pain the moment the blood clots enter the urine.

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Treatment Of Blood In Urine

It's high time to treat hematuria if you have it or know anyone around you. However, you can't just be treated like that because your treatment is based on what caused your urine to contain blood. Nevertheless, the following are treatment options to consider:

1. Antibiotics

A urinary tract infection (UTI) has no power over a recommended antibiotic your doctor gives, and it can treat hematuria. Just ensure you take the correct dosage to eliminate the bacteria responsible.

2. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL)

Individuals who cannot treat large kidney stones experience pain during urination and hematuria. Fortunately, there's a solution to this problem. For this kind of situation, a process known as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is what you need to destroy the stones so they won't block the bladder and cause hematuria. Your doctor can use this method for an hour after giving you a simple anesthesia.

3. Ureteroscope

Apart from ESWL, another effective method in treating kidney stones is using a ureteroscope. It has an inbuilt camera for detecting these stones, and your doctor will connect it through your urethra and bladder to reach your ureter. After seeing the stones, the next step is to capture and extract them. However, some stones may be large, so after catching them, they'll be destroyed to remove them quickly.

4. Medication/surgery

If you have confirmed that you have an enlarged prostate and it's making your urine contain blood, you need drugs like alpha blockers or 5-alpha reductase inhibitors. If these drugs do not work, then consider surgery.

Conclusion

Hematuria, or blood in the urine, can be detected with the naked eye or a microscope. It should be understood to know if you're suffering from it or not, as well as finding a solution. You can treat it based on what caused it, and options like antibiotics, shock wave therapy, ureteroscopy, or medications/surgery are effective. Don't forget to heed your doctor's instructions for a quick recovery.

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Dr. David G Kiely is a distinguished Medical Reviewer and former General Medicine Consultant with a wealth of experience in the field. Dr. Kiely's notable career as a General Medicine Consultant highlights his significant contributions to the medical field.

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